Tics/Tourette Syndrome

Tics are spasm-like movements of particular muscles in the body. There are two types of tics: motor and vocal. Motor tics are short-lasting movements and vocal tics are uttered sounds; both may occur suddenly during what is otherwise classified as normal behavior. Tics are classified as simple or complex. The following describes these two classifications. […]


Spasticity is a condition in which muscles are continually contracted. This leads to stiffness of the muscles that can interfere with movement, speech, and walking. It is usually caused by injury to the part of the brain or spinal cord that controls voluntary muscles. Many things can damage these areas including: Spinal cord injury from […]


Seizure: a single event due to an abnormal discharge from the brainEpilepsy: a syndrome of recurrent seizures Every individual with epilepsy has seizures, but not every person who has a seizure has epilepsy. Seizure Types: Generalized: these seizures involve the whole brain at once and consciousness is impaired. The following are different types of generalized […]


The neurofibromatoses are genetic disorders that cause tumors to grow in the nervous system and produce other problems such as skin changes and bone deformities. Many people inherit the disorder but between 30 and 50% have no family history of the disorder. This is called a “de novo” mutation. Once the mutation has occurred, it […]

Muscular Dystrophy

There are more than 30 genetic diseases in this group. They are all characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the muscles that control movement. Some types also affect heart muscle. The muscular dystrophies have a wide range of severity, onset, rate of progression, and muscles involved. Duchenne MD is the most common form and […]


Migraines are blood vessel headaches. During a migraine if you have auras, the blood vessels are constricting. The pain occurs when the blood vessels dilate. Childhood migraines are commonly bilateral but may be unilateral. A child’s behavior may depict whether they are experiencing photophobia and/or phonophobia. Occipital pain in children is rare and usually leads […]

Down Syndrome

This is a genetic syndrome caused by having an extra copy of Chromosome 21. At conception, a fertilized egg usually has 23 pairs of chromosomes. In Down Syndrome there are 3 copies of genetic material on Chromosome 21. This changes the normal development of the brain and body. Typical signs and symptoms of Down Syndrome […]

Leg Movement Disorders

Restless Legs Syndrome is a condition in which the child experiences unusual or uncomfortable sensations in his/her legs during rest or sleep. Symptoms include crawling, painful or tingling sensations, as well as the uncontrollable urge to move the legs. The cause is unknown. Periodic Leg Movement Disorder is a condition in which the child experiences repeated night […]


ENCEPHALOPATHY The term “static encephalopathy” is used as a generic description of a person with an impairment of brain function. At times, encephalopathy may include ADHD, mild learning disabilities, or it may range to our children and adults with severe brain injury.


Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes the muscles to contract and spasm involuntarily. Some facts about dystonia are as follows: The neurological mechanism that makes muscles relax when they are not in use does not function correctly,causing opposing muscles to contract simultaneously. Can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Elements shared by the […]